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Oxycodone powder is a white, odorless crystalline powder synthesized from the opium alkaloid, thebaine, found in the Persian poppy, and one of the many alkaloids found in the opium poppy. Oxycodone hydrochloride dissolves in water (1 g in 6 to 7 mL) and is considered slightly soluble in alcohol (octanol water partition coefficient is 0.7).Buy Oxycodone powder online Europe
Chemically, oxycodone hydrochloride is 4, 5a-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride.
Oxycodone powder is a semisynthetic moderately potent opioid analgesic, generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone was developed in 1917 in Germany as one of several semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids.
What is oxycodone?
Oxycodone is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.
The extended-release form of oxycodone is for around-the-clock treatment of pain and should not be used on an as-needed basis for pain.
Oxycodone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Oxycodone is an opioid agonist prescription medication. The oxycodone immediate-release formulation is FDA-approved for the management of acute or chronic moderate to severe pain, for which other treatments do not suffice, and for which the use of opioid medication is appropriate. The extended-release formulation is FDA-approved for the management of pain severe enough to require continuous (24 hours per day) long-term opioid treatment, and for which there are no alternative options to treat the pain.The oxycodone to morphine dose equivalent ratio is approximately 1 to 1.5 for immediate-release and 1 to 2 for extended-release formulations.
Mechanism of Action
Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid with agonistic properties on mu, kappa, and delta-type opioid receptors, with the strongest affinity being for mu-type receptors. Upon binding to these G-protein coupled receptors, oxycodone stimulates the exchange of GDP on the G-alpha subunit for GTP, resulting in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and a decrease in intracellular cAMP. This signal cascade leads to a consequent inhibition of the nociceptive neurotransmitters acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, noradrenaline, and substance P and the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and vasopressin. As with other opioids, oxycodone causes hyperpolarization and reduced excitability of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). This generalized CNS depression results from the agonistic effect on kappa-type receptors, leading to N-type voltage-gated calcium channels closure. In contrast, stimulation of the mu and delta-type receptors opens calcium-dependent inward-rectifying potassium channels.
The onset of action is 10 to 30 minutes for the immediate-release formulation and about 1 hour for controlled-release.
Duration range is from 3 to 6 hours for immediate-release or 12 hours in controlled-release formulations.
The plasma half-life is 3 to 5 hours, and stable plasma levels are reached within 24 to 36 hours.
Oxycodone is metabolized by the hepatic enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, producing the metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone, respectively. These metabolites get excreted from the body via the kidneys.
Oxycodone is widely available in tablet, capsule, and oral solution formulations.
Immediate-release tablets are available in 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, while capsules are 5 mg strength. Oral solution is available in 5 mg / 5 ml strength and oral concentrate is available in 100 mg / 5 mL strength. Manufacturers discontinued the 160 mg dose in May 2001 due to the high misuse potential.
Extended release tabelts are available in 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg and 80 mg strengths. Tablets are intended to be taken whole and must not be broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved in liquid.
Abuse-Deterrent tablets are available in 9 mg, 13.5 mg,18 mg, 27 mg, and 36 mg strengths.
Oxycodone is available in combination with other analgesics, including acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen.
In some countries, oxycodone may be available in intramuscular and/or intravenous forms.
Acute pain: Initial recommended doses of oxycodone are in the 5 to 15 mg range, every 4 to 6 hours as needed for adequate analgesia of acute pain. Further dosing should titrate upwards for pain control, with attention and monitoring for potential side effects.
Chronic pain: It is recommended to titrate dosage slowly upwards, starting at the lowest possible dose for analgesia (2.5 to 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours) for patients with chronic pain. However, the medication should be taken at regularly scheduled intervals for chronic pain management to prevent the reoccurrence of pain instead of treating the pain after it has started.
Specific Patient Population
Patients with Liver Impairment: Dose reduction may be necessary for patients with hepatic failure. Initiating a starting dose at one-third to one-half the usual doses and close monitoring is recommended. Titration upwards should proceed at a careful rate.
Patients with Renal Impairment: If CrCl is more than 60 ml/minute, no dose adjustment is necessary. If CrCl <30 mL/minute, 75% to 50% of the usual dose is recommended.
Geriatric Patients: Dose reduction may be necessary for the elderly, initiating a starting dose at one-third to one-half the usual doses and close monitoring is recommended. Titration upwards should proceed at a careful rate.
Pregnancy Considerations: Maternal oxycodone use during pregnancy may result in serious and sometimes fatal events, as opioids can cross the placental barrier. These events may include preterm delivery, congenital abnormalities, and reduced fetal growth. In addition, with prolonged exposure, babies born to opioid-dependent mothers may suffer from potentially life-threatening neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, clinicians should discuss the neonatal risks of oxycodone therapy in pregnant women or consider alternative treatments.
Breastfeeding Considerations: Oxycodone is excreted in variable concentrations into human milk. There is a lack of study on oxycodone use in lactating women and its effect on milk production. Access the maternal need for oxycodone and perform a risk-benefit analysis of oxycodone use. Monitor for potential adverse reactions (excessive sedation and respiratory depression) in infants with maternal administration of opioids, including oxycodone. Monitor for withdrawal symptoms when breastfeeding is stopped or oxycodone administration is stopped to mother.While some sources recommend not more than 30 mg oxycodone to breastfeeding women, others recommend against using it while breastfeeding.BUY DMT POWDER ARIZONA
Opioid Overdose Prevention
Discuss the naloxone for the emergency treatment of oxycodone overdose with the patient and/or caregiver and assess the need for access to naloxone, especially when initiating and renewing a treatment with oxycodone. Naloxone is available by prescription of clinicians, as part of a community-based program, or directly from a pharmacist. Clinicians should consider prescribing naloxone based on the patient’s medical history, clinical need, and risk for overdoses, such as a history of an opioid use disorder or concomitant use of other CNS depressants. Providers can also prescribe naloxone when the patient has household members (e.g., children) or close contacts at risk for overdose or accidental ingestion.Buy Oxycodone powder online Europe